How you structure this will change from organisation to organisation. You may have a formalised personal development plan (PDP), you may have a training budget, you may have 20% time - there are many mechanisms for improving any of these areas. Once you have had the conversation, and have agreed to focus in on a small number of areas (ideally 1-3), work with your manager or peers to structure that plan so that you have something measurable at the end of it.
Focus your learning in bite size chunks - if your PDP generally runs for a year, it’s easy to delay your improvement plan and stretch out the learning. What can you measurably do in a quarter? Could you deliver the learning in a quarter and then move onto the next area of improvement? Try to keep your feedback loop tighter, and you will be a lot more focussed on that growth conversastion.